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Biology µGCSE:

Variation + Evolution
+ Sex-linked Inheritance




10 minutes maximum! (can you do it in 5?)

1+2: The 5 kittens in the photo are from the same parents.

5 kittens from same litter

Brocken Inaglory | CC 3.0

1. The colour differences between the kittens is an example of..

  • A. discontinuous variation
  • B. continuous variation
  • C. selective evolution
  • D. random assortment
2. Two of the kittens grew to be much bigger than the other kittens. This could be due to:
  • A. Genes inherited from their parents
  • B. Eating more food than their siblings
  • C. Moving around more than their siblings
  • D. A combination of both genetic differences and eating more food.
3. Which of these examples of variation in humans are solely caused by genetic differences?
  • A. Obesity and hair colour
  • B. Gender and blood group
  • C. Height and natural eye colour
  • D. Obesity and natural eye colour

4-6. A plant grower’s crop was being eaten by a species of herbivorous insect so he decided to spray the crop with a pesticide. He repeated the process later in the year when the insects returned.

Diagrams of the leaves before and after applying pesticide are shown in this table:

  Before pesticide was applied After pesticide was applied
Plant grower finds crop attacked by insects and sprays the crop. 1.leaf with insects 1 2.leaf with insects 2
Later in the year there were more insects on his crop so he sprayed again. 3.leaf with insects 3 4.leaf with insects 4

Each dot represents 1 living insect.

4. How many varieties of the insect are there in this example?
  • A. one
  • B. Two
  • C. Three
  • D. Nine
5. Select the best statement to explain why after the first spraying 75% of the ‘black’ variety died but all the red ones survived.
  • A. ‘Red’ variety ate the ‘black’ variety of the insect
  • B. ‘Red’ variety escaped the pesticide
  • C. The ‘red’ variety are poisonous so birds don’t eat them.
  • D. ‘Red’ variety was resistant to the pesticide but the pesticide killed the ‘black’ variety.
6. How might the resistance to the pesticide have occurred?
  • A. By a mutation in the insect’s genome
  • B. By interbreeding
  • C. By the application of the pesticide
  • D. By changes in the weather.
7. Charles Darwin put forward a theory for evolution. According to Darwin how do new species evolve?
  • A. By adapting to the environment
  • B. By selective breeding
  • C. By natural selection
  • D. By chance
8. Which statement is NOT involved in the process of evolution through natural selection.
  • A. Within a breeding population there is variation
  • B. Organisms compete for resources such as food, habitat, mate.
  • C. Those varieties of a species that are better suited to the changing environmental pressures survive and mate.
  • D. As the environment changes an organism adapts to the change.

9. Many ‘superbugs’ are resistant to antibiotics. The table lists 4 stages in the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

1 When resistant bacteria infect another person the antibiotics will not kill the bacteria.
2 The resistant bacteria reproduce and pass on the resistant form of the gene.
3 A patient is infected with bacteria. Through mutations different varieties of the bacteria have occurred.
4 The patient is given antibiotics. Those bacteria that are resistant survive. The other bacteria die.

Which is the correct order of to explain the evolution of resistance to an antibiotic?

  • A. 1, 2, 3, 4
  • B. 2, 3, 4, 1
  • C. 3, 4, 2, 1
  • D. 3, 2, 4, 1
10. How can antibiotic resistance be reduced?
  • A. Take antibiotics for all illnesses
  • B. Only take antibiotics until you feel better
  • C. Take antibiotics only when really needed and complete the full course.
  • D. Share your antibiotics with other people.